츩ʿµǰ

HOME

ENGLISH


English

How does ptsd work

PTSD is an example of what are called “mental-mental” claims (in workers’ comp jargon), because it's a mental health problem that developed as a result of a mental or psychological condition at work. PTSD is typically the result of one specific incidence. People with PTSD often find it easier to talk about the other problems that go along with it - headache, sleep problems, irritability, depression, tension, substance abuse, family or work-related problems. And while none of these may be a PTSD cure, it’s clear that all of them offer help to people with PTSD. 09. So, if you’re someone suffering with PTSD symptoms after a trauma, don’t lose hope. You witnessed, in person, the traumatic event occurring to others. PTSD, or post-traumatic stress disorder, is caused by experiencing tragic, traumatic events. If the trauma is severe, prolonged, or life threatening, the aftereffects can last for years, physical damage can occur, and one suffers the debilitating effects of PTSD. PTSD Treatment Options Can Work with Help from My HealtheVet June is PTSD Awareness Month, a good time to stop and consider what type of help Veterans may need. One of the many areas that PTSD affects is the work place. They may be less happy and outgoing, have trouble sleeping, or seem "on edge. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that can develop after a person is exposed to a traumatic event, such as sexual assault, warfare, traffic collisions, or other threats on a person's life. According to our diagnostic manual, one must have symptoms for at least one month following an event to receive a PTSD diagnosis. "9 TO 5": PTSD AND WORK RELATIONSHIPS . "How does EMDR work? When disturbing experiences happen, they are stored in the brain with all the sights, sounds, thoughts and feelings that accompany it. Although a person can continue to work as a cop while suffering from PTSD, she also needs treatment to help in recovery. Lack of PTSD Stressor A large number of PTSD claims are denied because there isn’t a service-connected PTSD stressor. Recognize and understand how PTSD can affect you as a student. PTSD requires at Newsmax Inc. PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder) is a mental health problem that some people develop after experiencing or witnessing a life-threatening event, like combat, a natural disaster, a car accident, or sexual assault. Overview. Although PTSD injuries can arise in any of these three categories, to be considered work-related—and thus compensable under WC—a required degree of stress typically needs to be established, unless the state has established a presumption that PTSD is compensable. The disorder develops after the person is subjected to the risk of injury or death to themselves or someone close to them. A firm foundation here sets the stage for exposure therapy, where patients will work through reactions or feelings they experience in response to traumatic memories and other reminders of a traumatic event. Prozac has active ingredients of fluoxetine hydrochloride. Fortunately, support is one of the most effective tools available when it comes to treating the causes and symptoms of PTSD. A moment can become a lasting memory, and flashbacks can come in the form of images, smells, sounds, etc. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a pathological anxiety disorder resulting after exposure to a traumatic event. When considering applying, there are many questions about PTSD service dogs, what they do, what kind of dog, can my own dog be trained. Again, it's always the overachievers and those with a strong work ethic who hate the idea of quitting. Everyone is different, and PTSD affects people differently so a treatment that works for one person may not work for another. This has cost him jobs, relationships (personal and professional) and other stuff too. If you have a current diagnosis of PTSD but don’t have any current symptoms, you will be assigned a noncompensable rating of 0%. Most people who go through traumatic events may have temporary difficulty Originally Answered: How does EMDR WORK? The brief answer is that EMDR is not been proven to be effective as a PTSD therapy, even though some claim it is. It could be a bullying boss, a bullying coworker, or even excessive workload that can torment you. Still, in a large percentage of people, psychotherapy doesn't work well to treat the condition, Mithoefer said. In America alone, 43. These symptoms cause significant problems in social or work situations and in relationships. It was supposed to be a routine resupply mission: a short drive across the Al Asad Air Base, 90 kilometers north of sweltering Baghdad, to fetch, among other things, a newly-arrived TV to entertain the troops. PTSD patients exhibit hyperactivity in the amygdala in response to stimuli that are somehow connected to their traumatic experiences. In fact, rarely does a person with PTSD experience all the symptoms listed above. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) sometimes occurs when a traumatic event is experienced. Like most topics in the area of mental health or mental illness, there is an enormous amount of literature on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). But research shows any traumatic event can cause PTSD including dating abuse and …Art therapy has enormous healing potential. It can also take a toll on your physical health. PTSD patients exhibit hyperactivity in the amygdala in response to stimuli that are somehow connected to their traumatic experiences. To expand your internal resources A new study suggests commonly used first-line treatments for PTSD like CPT in veterans may not work as well as medical experts once thought that veterans have a more difficult time overcoming If you suffer from PTSD as a result of your on-the-job injury, you may be entitled to compensation based on factors like average weekly wage, type of injury, how many days you’ve missed from work, etc. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a complex and serious disorder affecting Veterans from every conflict. Living with PTSD can be a nightmare for multiple reasons, including the fact that positive feelings, trust, and a sense of closeness and intimacy seem out of reach for a long time. Workers’ compensation insurance covers on-the-job injuries for most Iowa workers. It is often used in depression. PTSD is an anxiety disorder If you are suffering from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), you may qualify for Social Security Disability benefits if it can be shown that you are incapable of performing any work which you have done before or which you could be trained for. Posttraumatic stress disorder ( PTSD) is a mental disorder that can develop after a person is exposed to a traumatic event, such as sexual assault, warfare, traffic collisions, or other threats on a person's life. PTSD in Military Veterans Causes, Symptoms, and Steps to Recovery For all too many veterans, returning from military service means coping with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Documenting Your PTSD for Social Security To make a “holistic analysis” of your mental health condition’s impact on your life, the VA rater must consider the frequency, chronicity and severity of your PTSD in work and social settings. PTSD is an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened. According to the National Center for PTSD, seven to eight percent of the U. uk/conditions/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd/The main treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are psychological therapies and medication. People of any gender, ethnicity, and background can experience it. Prozac. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) is a Mental Disorder that is caused by experiencing a traumatic event. Your exposure can happen in one or more of these ways: You directly experienced the traumatic event. net › … › PTSD Specific Discussions/Claims/IssuesSo I've heard mixed reviews about being 100% for just PTSD. If you click accept my preferences we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies on our website. Symptoms must last more than a month and be severe enough to interfere with relationships or work to be considered PTSD. What’s worse is medicine still doesn’t know how to treat it. 08. It can be triggered or exacerbated by the work environment. It can be a debilitating illness that inhibits the individual’s life. But with treatment, you can live a fulfilling life. ” ― Susan Pease Banitt. Offer them appropriate concessions to reduce their stress and anxiety at work. We also now know that some people are more prone to develop PTSD after experiencing a trauma than others. I have no idea what PTSD really means in regards to how it effects your life, how to cope with it, how/if it can be overcome, what limitations I will have. The symptoms of PTSD can have a negative impact on your mental health, physical health, work, and relationships. Here’s What Does. EMDR Therapy for PTSD. ] For some reason this person's C&P psychiatrist said they are allowed to work but also think they qualify for the 100%. Receive support by knowing your resources. Whilst on a walk, she realised that moving her eyes backwards and forwards helped her whilst thinking about traumatic memories. Why do some people develop PTSD and other people do not? affects people differently so a treatment that works for one person may not work for another. I However, your PTSD does not fully prevent you from performing and succeeding in a work environment. population will suffer from it during their lifetime, and it affects 5. Nonetheless, you are still able to maintain your relationships with others. 2007 · In order to deal with broken relationships the person must work on their PTSD and learn what their triggers are when they are in a relationship so that they know why the act the way they do. All and any payments made will be manually added if required usually within 24hrs. Can PTSD be work related? Accidents that cause injuries in the workplace can be traumatic. FMLA (Family Medical Leave Act). It explains signs and symptoms in children and adults, risk factors, treatment options, and next steps for PTSD research. The class of medications most commonly used for PTSD is called "selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors," but a doctor can work with you to figure out which medication works best for you. Treatment. Learn more about this unique form of psychotherapy that doesn't involve conversation. PTSD and Employment Law. How does it work, PTSD sufferer, need quick assistance? Preface: I've been diagnosed with PTSD and had a bit of a traumatic childhood. Unlike other anxiety disorders, PTSD can occur quite a considerable amount of time after the traumatic event has occurred. Your Job: Where Money and Mental Injury Meet : I can't begin to tell you how many vets I have talked with, whose first clue that they had PTSD came from a confrontive boss, or from a co-worker who told them they were "acting strangely. See which suggestions work for you and which do not. There are a variety of areas in our lives that can be impacted by the symptoms of PTSD and, in order to work toward a healthy recovery, it is important to give attention to each area. Learn about post-traumatic stress disorder. CONNECT WITH US. Stress can damage the brain. And the duration, intensity and danger of a traumatic experience are known to be directly related to the development of PTSD. The ability to continue working with post traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, is often dependent on the severity, frequency and duration of the symptoms you experience, including how common and pronounced your episodes or flashbacks of the triggering event are. If you have depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or another mental health condition, you are protected against discrimination and harassment at work because of your condition, you have workplace privacy rights, and you may have a legal right to get reasonable accommodations that can help you perform and keep your job. This means that flashbacks and nightmares continue because the memories of the trauma can't be processed. For example, a person may try to avoid an emotion through the use of substances or dissociation. The disorder is characterized by three main types of symptoms: Re-experiencing the trauma through intrusive distressing recollections of the event, PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) refers to the after-effects of a traumatic event which are directly experienced, witnessed, or learned about from a close family member or friend. People who have survived various kinds of trauma often emerge with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The onset of such symptoms can be sudden and can result in major changes in work performance. 8 million people suffer from a mental illness every year. Traumatic experiences can derail your life unless you have a way to process the event. com welcomes and encourages the off-line distribution of content from its website through appropriate channels but no use is granted without our specific permission. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health problem that some people develop after experiencing a traumatic event or injury. . Treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be as varied as the types of trauma that causes it, and what works for one person may not be what works for another. How does EMDR work? When people experience trauma, the brain does not process information as it would normally. your mental health care provider (or the provider caring for your spouse), then you do. No wonder people who suffer from PTSD at work act so distanced and dejected. Does EMDR Work? And if so, Why?: A Critical Review of Controlled Outcome and Dismantling Research If your symptoms place your rating at a level that does not reflect your disability, we can help. It can develop after being involved in, or witnessing, a serious trauma. In this webcast, Dr. org Trauma disrupts the stress-hormone system. Think like a veterans disability benefits lawyer when applying for your 100 percent VA disability rating for PTSD. 2007 · I have a friend who's had severe PTSD for a long time (due to sex abuse). An example would be a veteran who is triggered by the sound of helicopters (and the dog would not prevent helicopters from coming around). The pressure of work-related responsibilities may seem particularly heavy if PTSD is involved, as symptoms can make it difficult to remain concentrated, organized, and calm. Indicas work well for PTSD. Symptoms may include disturbing thoughts, feelings, or dreams related to the events, mental or physical distress to trauma-related cues, attempts to avoid trauma-related cues, alterations in how a person thinks and feels, and an increase in the fight-or-flight response. How Virtual Reality Is Helping Heal Soldiers With PTSD. Conventional pharmacology treatment of PTSD typically involves the use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which work by increasing the levels of serotonin in the brain. Ask that family member about work, their children, or their favorite sports team, and steer the conversation to safer ground. PTSD Individual Unemployability benefits are available to veterans who can’t work from severe PTSD. These therapies have been shown to work in controlled studies and with effort and the right, specialized care, they most likely will work for you, too. If you do not meet the requirements of the listing, you can still receive benefits through a medical-vocational allowance, a type of approval that considers your work history, age, education, and Residual Functional Capacity, which is what you can do despite all of your impairments. For a 30% grant, you would have to show that your work efficiency has declined and that your personal relationships have decreased. Anniversaries of the event, for example, are commonly difficult times. 20. The Symptoms of Complex PTSD. For this reason, therapists may diagnose bullying targets with PTSD, allowing patients receive treatment. (latest outcomes from Prozac 65,791 users)Ptsd. Then there's the tough job market. Post-traumatic stress disorder was first described by a doctor treating patients during the Civil War. Post-traumatic stress disorder medications have pros and cons just like any other prescription medications. Feb 13, 2017 After a terrifying or dangerous event, some people develop PTSD. Then take the opportunity to redirect the conversation. Military Service-Related PTSD Reports from the recent United States-related military conflicts in the Middle East, most notably in Iraq, have increased public awareness of not only the physical wounds, but also the emotional trauma associated with military combat. How to Apply for Disability Benefits with PTSDDiese Seite übersetzenwww. Traumatic events that may trigger PTSD include violent personal assaults, natural or human-caused disasters, accidents, or military combat. If the event that led to PTSD was physical, most states will recognize that as a physical/mental injury (that is, a mental injury caused by physical injury) Post-traumatic stress disorder is a challenging condition, and recovery is a long-term goal rather than something that can be achieved immediately. PTSD can make it more difficult to thrive within personal relationships, including those with spouses, partners, family members, friends, and even children. Symptoms may include disturbing thoughts, feelings, or dreams related to the events, If you experience posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), you are eligible for workplace accommodations under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental illness characterized by severe anxiety resulting from experiencing extreme mental trauma, typically involving the possibility of death or bodily harm. Now and then, the body cannot quite heal the trauma, and there are long-term changes in the brain. In order to understand the neurological implications of PTSD, it is important to quickly parse the concept of neuroplasticity. Frank Ochberg discusses what happens to the brain after a traumatic event. Stakeholders should continue to raise awareness about the impact of PTSD on employees and the WC system. org. Although PTSD injuries can arise in any of these three categories, to be considered work-related—and thus compensable under WC—a required degree of stress typically needs to be established, unless the state has established a presumption that PTSD is compensable. Post-traumatic stress disorder is a psychological reaction that can manifest itself after a traumatic event. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is a posttraumatic stress disorder treatment. PTSD elevates your risk for depression, alcohol, drugs, and eating disorders, which can lead to the development of certain medical illnesses. As long as you have an official diagnosis of PTSD from. The list is abbreviated as each individual has his or her own reactions, coping skills, as well as work environment. ” And it depends on many factors, most notably the severity of your symptoms, the effectiveness of treatment options, the strength of your medical evidence , your age, your education level and the type of work you have done . The U. If you are 100% PTSD PT you will NOT be reexamined. I saw guys blown to pieces. have some legal "protections. Veterans who experience PTSD often must appeal their rating decision to be paid the benefits they are entitled to because of their service. In retrospect, I’m pretty sure that many of them were really suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. My girlfriend does the best she can with my PTSD (some days I'm quiet or very tired, or stressed out mostly). Updated January 20, 2019 Pin Flip Email Print iStockphoto More in Bullying Impact Prevention and Coping For years, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was thought to be something only war veterans experienced. The most common symptom that the VA looks for when determining a PTSD rating is how the condition has affected your work and personal life. disability-benefits-help. Some experiences, like the sudden, unexpected death of a loved one, can also cause PTSD. Another type of talk therapy, exposure therapy, treats anxiety disorders by exposing patients to their fears in a systematic and secure way. A Service Dog for PTSD can help prevent environmental triggers. The exact answer varies from person to person, as PTSD is a very individualized disorder; the nature of the trauma that causes PTSD differs, and each person’s reaction is unique ( PTSD Causes: Causes of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder ). 2011 · Exposure to a traumatic event may cause PTSD symptoms. Workplace Bullying, Abuse and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: It's True, Your Boss Can Give You PTSD. If in the opinion of the mental health expert the person is capable of working the fact that they choose to not work would not be a basis to continue a 100 percent rating for a mental condition. DBT will help build coping skills, but trauma processing is critical in order to return your body and mind to a stable baseline. This does not stop donations or upgrades being made, they work correctly, other than show in balances here. Just as our nation’s soldiers and veterans battle the effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), so do our first responders. Fortunately, there are options for making things better. PTSD can develop immediately after a traumatic event or sometimes months or even years after it. Symptoms at work PTSD affects many facets of a survivor’s life. Complex PTSD does acknowledge and validate these added symptoms. 2016 · This does not stop donations or upgrades being made, they work correctly, other than show in balances here. Effect of trauma on the amygdala. Working with Complex PTSD, Dissociation, and EMDR Therapy EMDR Advanced Workshops , EMDR Therapy Blog , Guest Blogger , Katie Asmus We often hear in the news about trauma and PTSD, but very little on Complex PTSD. PTSD – Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Does Social Security consider PTSD to be disabling? The short answer is, “It depends. 2 million American adults a year. Life is full of unexpected and difficult circumstances, but sometimes after a traumatic or challenging life event takes place, individuals can be left with memories of the situation, which is coupled with a disorder known as PTSD. " They may have a hard time at work or school. Traumatic events can be very difficult to come to terms with, but confronting your feelings and seeking professional help is often the only way of effectively treating PTSD. Factors such as prior trauma history, negative life events, and routine work environment stress also can increase the risk for PTSD symptoms. ". He's started EMDR treatment but still has a long way to go. The hippocampus is a part of the brain that processes memories. And I probably spent a cartridge of ammo every minute firing at all these motherfucking pieces of shit. November 2, (yes tomorrow is the 8-year anniversary) I fell around 120 feet while rock climbing. The condition was first recognised in war veterans and has been known by a variety of names, such as 'shell shock'. DEA Approves First Ever Marijuana Study for Veterans with PTSD The United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has given formal A Look Into Mental Health and Medical Marijuana One of the common questions relevant to the debate on medical marijuana use Study: Orally Administered THC May Help Treat PTSD Post-traumatic Symptoms Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) In most cases, the symptoms develop during the first month after a traumatic event. Typically, PTSD symptoms are broken down into four groups : Intrusive memories Posttraumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, is a serious potentially debilitating condition that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a natural disaster, serious accident, terrorist incident, sudden death of a loved one, war, violent personal assault such as rape, or other life-threatening events. How Does EMDR Work and Uses for EMDR Including Anxiety, Stress, and PTSD Who would have ever thought that mere eye movement can ward off a troubling thought or a negative image? Well, Francine Shapiro, the inventor of EMDR or Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, didn’t imagine it at first. PTSD is a serious condition that can occur after a person experiences or witnesses an extremely traumatic event. PTSD can cause have problems with concentration, organization, and coping with stress. Jul 6, 2018 Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. This can be true of people who’ve just begun to experience trauma and PTSD, or of longtime PTSD sufferers alike. Avoidance refers to any action designed in preventing an uncomfortable emotion from occurring, such as fear, sadness or shame. When defining PTSD, a “traumatic event” is any event where the person experiences shocking circumstances that conflict with their understanding of what is right and good. Worldwide 1 in 10 emergency workers have PTSD. The amount of treatment varies depending on the local department's resources and policies. PTSD often occurs with depression, substance abuse, or other anxiety disorders. This subsequent rise suggests that there can be a delayed onset of symptoms. VA is committed to providing the best care and resources for our Veterans that are diagnosed and deal with PTSD. Symptoms at work. If it looks like a dog, if it barks like a dog, and if overall it behaves like a dog, then it is most likely to be a dog. Supporting Statements. You could potentially receive temporary total disability, permanent and total disability, partial disability, Understanding Combat PTSD from the Inside, Out Combat-Related Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (or Combat PTSD ) is not just something that happens to a soldier when they have to kill someone (though that can play a part). population meets the criteria for PTSD and while PTSD cases commonly involve combat or assault experiences, there is a wide range of events capable The main treatments are psychotherapy (“talk” therapy), medications, or both. Employers have a legal requirement, under the Health & Safety at Works Act, 1974, to provide a safe system at work for employees. It was really like being in hell. Veterans Benefits Network. At the other end of the scale, you will be assigned a 100% VA disability rating for PTSD if you have total occupational and social impairment, meaning you are totally disabled. PTSD is diagnosed after a person experiences symptoms for at least one month following a traumatic event. People with PTSD need to work with a mental health professional to find the best treatment for their symptoms. Understanding Combat PTSD from the Inside, Out Combat-Related Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (or Combat PTSD ) is not just something that happens to a soldier when they have to kill someone (though that can play a part). It involves exposure to trauma involving death or the threat of death, serious injury, or sexual violence. Furthermore, you may experience symptoms such as depressed mood, anxiety, and panic attacks. More on Talk Therapy and PTSD. FamilyOfaVet. Overall, a 30% PTSD rating is assigned when a veteran demonstrates these "There is some research on the impact on partners, but not so much on children,” says researcher Tara Collins, a Faculty of Social Work clinical social work PhD candidate who is conducting a new study on the impact of PTSD on military families. htmWith Post-traumatic Stress Disorder the sufferer relives, over and over again, the worst moment of his life. Find out the latest treatment products and expert advice. The symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can have a significant impact on your day-to-day life. However, certain factors can influence the answer to In other states, whether PTSD is covered depends on what caused it and whether the state recognizes that event as a work injury. While not everyone with PTSD will require accommodations, there are many options available for dealing with fatigue, stress, poor concentration, memory loss, and anxiety. PTSD’s long-term effects are concerning because they affect job stability when patients with PTSD are closer to retirement or hold a position with greater responsibility. Trauma appears to increase activity in the amygdala. Q: How does EMDR work? A: EMDR means Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, it is one of the psychotherapies designed to help people with PTSD to …Can eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a psychotherapy technique, work to help people with post traumatic stress disorder in just 5 sessions?Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental illness. I attempt to work out and do things, but a lot of the time I am very depressed. During exposure therapy, you work with a mental health professional to help you [7] Try to do a physical activity three to five days a week for 30 minutes each day. When does PTSD start? The symptoms of PTSD can start immediately or after a delay of weeks or months, but usually within 6 months of the traumatic event. To make a “holistic analysis” of your mental health condition’s impact on your life, the VA rater must consider the frequency, chronicity and severity of your PTSD in work and social settings. Diagnosis of PTSD requires exposure to an event that involved the actual or possible threat of death, violence or serious injury. Even though logically I know I am still the same person I was before I found this out, with the goals and everything I had-- I totally freaked out. PTSD causes problems in your daily life, such as in relationships and at work. Documenting Your PTSD for Social Security To win your PTSD VA disability benefits claim, you are going to have to prove you are eligible with evidence. rachelsvineyard. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event. Typically, PTSD symptoms are broken down into four groups : Intrusive memories Trauma-Specific: A PTSD Service Dog does not prevent trauma-specific triggers. However symptoms may not appear until several months or even years later. "Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that can occur . PTSD. Employers are required, however, to consider all of the factors leading up to the issues presented by the employee. While it’s important to respect your loved one’s boundaries, your comfort and support can help the person with PTSD overcome feelings of helplessness, grief, and despair. In post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), distressing symptoms occur after one or more frightening incidents. Because of the symptoms and effects, PTSD can kill your self-esteem and mood while boosting your anxiety, all of which can affect family, personal, and professional relationships. Rarely do C&P exams for Veterans with a PTSD claim discuss how long the symptoms last or the length of any periods of “remission”. There are many individuals with PTSD who are able to work and are functioning at a level Symptoms of PTSD. This brochure focuses on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a disorder that some people develop after experiencing a shocking, scary, or dangerous event. Many veterans just file a PTSD VA disability benefits claim with no evidence are denied and they don’t understand why. Both CBT and exposure therapy are typically recommended for those disgnosed with PTSD. Symptoms of the two types are much the same. Deal with any problems promptly, and train other members of your team to treat those with PTSD with greater understanding. The person may also have learned about violence to a closeMilitary Service-Related PTSD Reports from the recent United States-related military conflicts in the Middle East, most notably in Iraq, have increased public awareness of not only the physical wounds, but also the emotional trauma associated with military combat. This study examined the relationship between routine work environment stress and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of police officers (N = 180) who were first assessed during academy training and reassessed 1-year later. Is PTSD Covered Under the ADA? Valdez: Does marijuana help PTSD? Make it easier to do the research. EMDR Therapy helps you work through these difficult feelings and gets you back on the right track. Also, a lot of people do wonder if maybe it's them. For the most part, a person with this disorder must have experienced the event him or herself, or witnessed the event in person. Even medicines that are helpful with some symptoms may leave you with problems in other areas. Six months later, it was like nothing had ever happened. Avoidance may work in the short-term but can cause more problems later. This story is about how hiding PTSD at work used to feel deeply empowering, but over time, became impossible. Most Treatments for Childhood PTSD Don’t Work. Women who have never been in the military can exhibit PTSD symptoms, too. Often, PTSD can be completely overcome (Does A PTSD Cure Exist? Sometimes, though, there are lingering effects. PTSD sometimes causes short-term memory loss and can have long-term chronic psychological repercussions. New brain research and the hard work of survivors provide important insights for treatment and hope. People with PTSD need to work with a mental health professional to find the best To help a friend or relative, you can: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder . Current literature estimates that 8% of the U. These events are called traumas. S. A Compensation and Pension Exam. Post-traumatic stress disorder is a mental health condition that gradually affects the body. Learn about this condition and how it’s leading to a n understanding of memory. New brain research and the hard work of survivors provide important insights for treatment and hope. In the event that someone with the condition fails to meet work expectations, the employer does have grounds for disciplinary action. What's the difference between stress and PTSD?"Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that can occur . In most cases, the symptoms develop during the first month after a traumatic event. People with PTSD appear to have different amounts of certain chemicals (called neurotransmitters) in the brain than people without PTSD. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), once called shell shock or battle fatigue syndrome, is a serious condition that can develop after a person has experienced or witnessed a traumatic or This page is dedicated to helping Veterans and their loved ones learn more about coping with PTSD at work. EMDR Therapy helps you work through these difficult feelings and gets you back on …“PTSD is a whole-body tragedy, an integral human event of enormous proportions with massive repercussions. 2007 · Beste Antwort: PTSD - has so many possible symptoms. Why does it work so well for PTSD and anxiety? Learn more about this unique form of psychotherapy that doesn't involve conversation. This question came up in conversation when I was speaking How does it work? People with PTSD often try to avoid anything that reminds them of the trauma. People with PTSD may wish to contact a therapist. I feel like the PTSD is affecting my ability to work as a personal trainer. PTSD causes recurrent flashback episodes and nightmares How Can I Help? When someone you love has PTSD, it can affect your relationship with them. A new study offers the first empirical evidence. 23. Research has recently shown that Working with Complex PTSD, Dissociation, and EMDR Therapy EMDR Advanced Workshops , EMDR Therapy Blog , Guest Blogger , Katie Asmus We often hear in the news about trauma and PTSD, but very little on Complex PTSD. How Does PTSD Affect Brain Function? 19 Simple Psychological Tricks That Actually Work - Duration: 7:48 Exposure to potentially traumatic experiences on a regular basis sets the stage for a series of mental health complications, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Needless to say this kind've ****** me up and caused a lot of problems. Awareness of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has increased especially with the return of combat veterans to the workforce, but this mental health condition isn't limited to the military community. 01. In 2015, I graduated from DBT (dialectical behavioral therapy) after a year of participating in the program. While we do not know for sure what works best to help people recover from a 8 Oct 2015 Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a condition characterised by recurring distressing memories, flashbacks and other symptoms after The ability to continue working with post traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, is often dependent on the severity, frequency and duration of the symptoms you experience, including how common and pronounced your episodes or flashbacks of the triggering event are. I can only speak as to my less-than-beneficial experiences with Exposure Therapy. There are drugs approved to treat PTSD, but they only target the symptoms, he added. Many people with PTSD try to escape their emotions. Autor: Gift From Within- PTSD ResourcesAufrufe: 201KVideolänge: 11 Min. Some people believe that providing veterans with trained service dogs would help hundreds of thousands of veterans cope with post- traumatic stress. 13 Dec 2018 People who struggle with PTSD often do so in isolation, finding it hard to reach There are many strategies that can work together with your 3 Dec 2018 Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can cause ongoing challenges or impairment in the person's social interactions, their ability to work, . In the case of PTSD caused by bullying and abuse at work, this is a particularly black dog. This is part of the avoidance cluster of PTSD symptoms. EMDR however, allows patients to take direct control of how their brain processes information. Many people are familiar with PTSD, which is a trauma disorder that occurs after exposure to a traumatic event like war, assault, a natural disaster, or any event that threatens someone's life and safety. Fault finding is in process already, which will take time. The same report also highlights the absence of abuse and dependence potential of CBD in a well-controlled human experimental research. The Science Behind PTSD Symptoms: How Trauma Changes The Brain. They also deal with social stigma – not to mention possible repercussions at school, work or in the military. If panic attacks are a part of your symptoms, then they would teach you and have you practice "grounding techniques" activities or …Status: GelöstAntworten: 10100% for PTSD and work - Veterans Benefits …Diese Seite übersetzenvetsbenefits. The symptoms can cause serious problems at work and in relationships, and can even make getting through daily life a struggle. 2012 · The recently-issued policy on screening and treating PTSD from the Army’s Office of the Surgeon General (OTSG) is dense, specific and should be helpful in advancing the field of post-traumatic stress disorder diagnosis and treatment. High levels of stress hormones, like adrenaline, can stop it from working properly – like 'blowing a fuse'. The effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be far-reaching and debilitating. Which makes it as damaging for some as it is beneficial for others. To expand your internal resources Although medicines can reduce the symptoms of PTSD, the fact that the medicine has not helped you does not mean you are stuck with the PTSD forever. how does ptsd workWhat does PTSD feel like? Many people feel Does everyone get PTSD after a traumatic experience? No. Posttraumatic stress disorder is a syndrome that affects a huge degree of the population, spanning a range of individuals from war veterans to survivors of abuse. How Does it Work? PTSD may be related to changes in the brain that are linked to our ability to manage stress. Above all, to be considered for a diagnosis of C-PTSD, the target must experience an extended period under the control of another person. ". Ptsd (post-traumatic stress disorder) has been reported by people with depression, stress and anxiety, pain, quit smoking, high blood pressure (latest reports from 11,318 Ptsd patients). An event is considered traumatic if the person experienced, witnessed, or was confronted with an event or events that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others. Posttraumatic stress disorder. It discusses how the individual's coworkers can provide support. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can affect nearly every aspect of daily life, and can be especially debilitating if left untreated. Research into this anxiety disorder began intensely after Congress requested a study of how Vietnam veterans were adjusting back to …This article on PTSD & the Workplace discusses some of issues individuals with PTSD may have at work. There is a good chance that at some point during your work life you will be in a toxic workplace. You will make your argument to the VA through evidence like service records and medical records. The trauma is induced in many ways including child abuse, sexual assault, natural disasters, car crashes, combat, and direct threats to one's life. You need to realize that no one medicine is going to work for everyone who has PTSD. Unfortunately, the difference in treatment of PTSD in men vs. The main treatments for people with PTSD are medications, psychotherapy (“talk” therapy), or both. While some treatments for PTSD seem to be effective, high drop-out rates from treatment programs are a big problem. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a condition characterised by recurring distressing memories, flashbacks and other symptoms after suffering or witnessing a traumatic event. By Sherri Gordon. Having taken notice of the astounding numbers of patients finding relief by switching to pot, psychiatrists and neuroscientists have attempted to explain how cannabis might help PTSD. This is when a veteran meets with a VA psychiatrist and describes his or …Learning healthy strategies for coping with PTSD is possible and can offer a sense of renewal, hope and control over your life. Symptoms of PTSD can include fear, the inability to concentrate, depression, anti-social behaviors, violent outbursts, anger, nightmares, insomnia, and many more. EMDR, or Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing, was developed in 1987 by psychologist Francine Shapiro. 03. But it's not only diagnosed inEMDR: What is it and how does it work? EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) is an advanced psychotherapy model that combines psychology with physiology in a way that allows a person to identify and “clear” past traumatic events. For those who have suffered adverse actions from their employer as a result of PTSD, there is legal recourse. 02. However, in a minority of cases, there may be a delay of months or even years before symptoms start to appear. It pays benefits to injured employees for medical expenses, lost wages, and other damages they suffer due to work …Bullying Can Lead to PTSD Discover How PTSD Manifests Itself in Kids . Symptoms usually begin early, within 3 months of the traumatic incident, but sometimes they begin years afterward. The Brain and PTSD. . But in a minority of cases, there may be a delay of months or even years before symptoms start to appear. If you are one of the millions of adults who grew up affected by traumatic experiences during your childhood, you may have tried therapies that promised to help you calm your emotions, change your thinking, and respond to stress like normal people do. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that's triggered by a terrifying event — either experiencing it or witnessing it. PTSD can be hard to diagnose and treat as there is often a late onset of symptoms as well as concurrent disorders. Post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, doesn't just affect men who have been in the military. This page explains how veterans with PTSD obtain Individual Unemployability benefits. This can help you feel better in the moment, but not in the long term. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) affects thousands of individuals across the world. Serotonin is a naturally occurring chemical that plays an important role in mood regulation. PTSD in women is vast. They need to become more aware of how they are behaving and see what connections there are to the PTSD and the idea of a healthy relationship. Many patients with the diagnosis of post traumatic stress disorder are forced to file for disability, rendering them unable to work at all. People with PTSD often relive such experiences through nightmares and flashbacks (components of the threatening event are relived as though experiencing the event at the moment), sleeping problems, fear, helplessness and horror. How to Help Someone With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Posttraumatic stress is a treatable condition. Your family can help you. Overall, when used properly, these medications do alleviate some of the most severe symptoms for PTSD sufferers. In fact, trying to cope with the after-effects of severe trauma can be very difficult. PTSD Symptoms. After any type of trauma (from combat to car accidents, natural disasters to domestic violence, sexual assault to child abuse), the brain and body change. Events that have been shown to cause PTSD include terrorist attacks, military combat, violent personal attacks and serious road accidents. And they need to look at why they sabotage relationships …Status: GelöstAntworten: 6Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) | Mind, …Diese Seite übersetzenhttps://www. Can anyone provide me a link where it says you can or can not work if you are rated 100% fHow Trauma Impacts the Brain Talking points from seminar for Rachel’s Vineyard Ministries Theresa Burke, Ph. PTSD is a illness covered under both the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) and the. One place is in the workplace. Complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD; also known as complex trauma disorder) is a psychological disorder that can develop in response to prolonged, repeated experience of interpersonal trauma in a context in which the individual has little or no chance of escape. Department of Labor links PTSD to poor job performance. When veterans apply for benefits or increased disability ratings, personal statements can give the VA a better sense of how their PTSD affects day-to-day life. 07. There is no denying that the number of conclusive research about CBD oil for PTSD treatments is still limited. Defining the Disorder. www. Both people with and without PTSD can cope with holiday stress by following these tips: Talk with your family about how you feel. Can eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a psychotherapy technique, work to help people with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in just 5 sessions? The short answer is, yes. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious mental condition that some people develop after a shocking, terrifying, or dangerous event. Depending on the PTSD severity, PTSD can have a huge affect on the ability of an individual to function in normal life. Other people find that symptoms may increase when they encounter reminders of their traumatic events. Veterans can discuss symptoms and their daily impact at work, at home, or within personal relationships. 4. 2012 · For weeks he would only refer to me in the third person during executive staff meetings, and not in a good way, either. However, not only does it sometimes affect war survivors and those who have served in combat, it can also result from childhood abuse, rape, violence, or even a traumatic natural catastrophe, such as a hurricane. Does Workers Compensation Cover PTSD? Massachusetts’s worker’s comp law does cover mental and emotional disabilities, like post-traumatic stress disorder, as long as they are work-related. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental illness. Does 12-step Treatment Work by Inducing PTSD? A Gene for PTSD? Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Skip to content commonly experienced by people with PTSD. With post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the feelings don’t go away. We have answers. Complex PTSD is a proposed disorder which is different to post-traumatic stress disorder. The ADA and Employees with PTSD. In this post, I want to suggest that 12-step recovery works for some addicts, but it does so by promoting a kind of PTSD. This does not stop donations or upgrades being made, they work correctly, other than show in balances here. how does ptsd work It may arise immediately after an experience or years later. EMDR is the most effective and rapid method for healing PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) as shown by extensive scientific research studies. The illness is marked by uncontrollable thoughts, extreme anxiety, nightmares and flashbacks. PTSD and Workers’ Comp Claims. 12. This could be a car or other serious accident, physical or sexual assault, war-related events or torture, or a natural disaster such as bushfire or flood. Many of the issues and symptoms endured by complex trauma survivors are outside of the list of symptoms within the (uncomplicated) PTSD diagnostic criterion. nhs. Employees can suffer work-related psychological or mental problems in three different ways. Everyone is different, and PTSD affects people differently, so a treatment that works for one person may not work for another. What Is PTSD and What Can We Do About It? Our society still faces a huge battle in understanding mental illnesses, even now with all of our advances in technology. Ambulance personnel are the hardest hit, with over 1 in 5 ambulance personnel meeting criteria . Latest Research. People with PTSD have a higher probability to suffer from depression, anxiety or phobias. Special accommodations should then be made in order to help facilitate the working environment of an employee with post traumatic stress disorder. When a Counselor or Dr address it, they will address the symptoms that they see you having. People with PTSD don’t experience getting a little bit better every day. This may cause you to occasionally isolate yourself. Even hearing about the unexpected injury or violent death of a family member or close friend can start PTSD. Environmental. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an emotional illness that that is classified as an anxiety disorder and usually develops as a result of a terribly frightening, life-threatening, or otherwise highly unsafe experience. Ort: 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MDPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - …Diese Seite übersetzenhttps://www. What mechanism it should make use of is also heavily debated, as the idea of linking triggers to pleasant memories is simplistic at best. PTSD can manifest itself in various ways in the workplace following the symptoms above. Often, the two kinds of treatment are more effective Personal Statement. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious mental condition that some people develop after a shocking, terrifying, or dangerous event. They exhibit anxiety, panic, and extreme stress when they are shown photographs or presented with narratives of trauma victims whose experiences match theirs, or if they listen to sounds or words related to their traumatic encounters. PTSD can be a workplace issue. Some people with PTSD experience long periods when their symptoms are less noticeable, Exposure to a traumatic event may cause PTSD symptoms. 06. When a person is very upset, the brain seems to be unable to process the experience as it would normally. Our central study hypothesis, then, was that trauma survivors with a lifetime history of PTSD would show impaired WMC on our novel emotional reading span Why do some people develop PTSD and other people do not? and PTSD affects people differently so a treatment that works for one person may not work for Increasing the amount of light in the working does not prevent or reduce the severity of PTSD, and in fact in 6 Jul 2018 Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. How Does PTSD Affect Employability? Posted at 13:48h in PTSD by InstituteNews Post Traumatic Stress Disorder has become increasingly important to the government and military after it was found that an estimated 20-30% of all veterans are expected to have PTSD or PTSD like symptoms. Post-traumatic stress disorder injuries in workers compensation have recently attracted the attention of legislators and other system stakeholders. It can involve having upsetting memories, feeling on edge, and/or having trouble sleeping or participating in normal daily activities. stuffyoushouldknow. And they may pull away from friends, family, and loved ones. These days, especially now that the definition of PTSD has been broadened, all managers should therefore be alert to the incidents that could, potentially, Helping someone with PTSD tip 1: Provide social support It’s common for people with PTSD to withdraw from friends and family. " It's a pivotal point in a person's life when their mental injury becomes "outed" at work. This is part of cognitive behavioral therapy, a short-term therapy that helps restructure unhealthy thinking patterns. Post-traumatic stress disorder is a challenging condition, and recovery is a long-term goal rather than something that can be achieved immediately. Doctors and patients can work together to find the best medication PTSD takes many forms. D. What Are the Treatments for PTSD? In this Article In this Article Short- and long-term psychotherapy and medications can work very well. Recovery can involve both physical rehabilitation and psychological recuperation; some injured workers continue to experience symptoms of PTSD after their bodies have healed. They also blame themselves for a traumatic event more than men do. Jimmy Castellanos, a 20-year-old Marine just five months into his first tour in Iraq, Complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD; also known as complex trauma disorder) is a psychological disorder that can develop in response to prolonged, repeated experience of interpersonal trauma in a context in which the individual has little or no chance of escape. com/podcasts/ptsd-works. EMDR Therapy for PTSD. Instead, it can result from any fearful or traumatic experience such as the death of a loved one, Good communication is key to managing a team member with PTSD. What Does PTSD Feel Like, and Who Can Experience It? We often think of PTSD as a risk for soldiers, for people fighting in war, or those doing military service. Symptoms of PTSD can include hypervigilance, inability to concentrate, guilt, disinterest in normal activities, flashbacks, etc. You CAN work whether people on this site say you should or not is irrelevant. Something is traumatic when it is very frightening, overwhelming and causes a lot of distress. org › … › Disabling ConditionsPTSD has also been called post traumatic stress syndrome, battle fatigue, or shell shock. But how does the ADA apply to mental health conditions like PTSD? After all, these conditions may have less obvious effects but still impact an employee's ability to perform work-related duties. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a form of anxiety disorder. In order to heal from the effects of trauma and Complex PTSD, it is important to do the work of trauma processing. uk//post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsdPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a type of anxiety disorder which you may develop after being involved in, or witnessing, traumatic events. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a set of reactions that can develop in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event that threatens their life or safety (or others around them). The first diagnosis of the modern view of PTSD came in 1980. Dec 13, 2018 You may feel isolated, have trouble maintaining a job, be unable to trust People who struggle with PTSD often do so in isolation, finding it Among one study of workers injured on the job, 44% developed PTSD, and 58% had a But for workers who do struggle with the disorder, employers, human If think a loved one has PTSD in addition to an addiction and you want to know not every individual with PTSD will develop the same signs – and rarely do all 17 . Some of the events that are included are wartime, physical and/or sexual abuse, car and plane crashes, rape, sudden loss of a family member, and childhood neglect. Some of the occupations that have the greatest incidence of PTSD are corrections officers, police, firefighters and other emergency personnel. The recently-issued policy on screening and treating PTSD from the Army's Office of the Surgeon General (OTSG) is dense, specific and should be helpful in advancing the field of post-traumatic stress disorder diagnosis and treatment. Social workers can help educate you and your family about your health care condition, what services and programs are available to you, how you can live a more healthy life, how you can deal with stress and loss, and how you can find support groups and other self-help programs in your community. I try to keep a positive approach. He lost his last job due to the Status: GelöstAntworten: 6How PTSD Works | Stuff You Should KnowDiese Seite übersetzenhttps://www. What does a PTSD Disability Rating Consist of? 1. Present the strongest argument you can to the VA to obtain your 100 percent VA disability rating for PTSD. You may feel isolated, have trouble maintaining a job, be unable to trust other people, and have difficulty controlling or expressing your emotions. Although it is a risk for them, PTSD can develop from any event that feels overwhelmingly threatening or scary to the person involved Women are twice as likely to develop posttraumatic stress disorder as men, and children can also develop it. Generally, trauma-informed DBT is referred to asFor some people, PTSD symptoms gradually fade over time. What does that mean in the context of a VA PTSD rating? Usually, it means the veteran dumped 3, 5, or 10 years of mental health treatment records, and a couple handwritten statements on a VA Form 21-4138, on the VA and hoped the rater would see how bad things were. Every cell records memories and every embedded, trauma-related neuropathway has the opportunity to repeatedly reactivate. "In therapy I learned how to respond differently to the thoughts that used to get stuck in my head. The person may also have learned about violence to a closeEmployees diagnosed with PTSD after suffering a traumatic event at work will presumptively qualify for workers' compensation if changes to existing legislation are approved in the House of Assembly. His family is severely in denial and can't be bothered with his problems. In fact, for people with PTSD, working with an art therapist has been a lifesaver. PTSD Treatment Works. 05. “PTSD can adversely affect every area of the person's life and make daily living almost intolerable,” says Kardong. EMDR is considered a breakthrough therapy because of its simplicity and the fact that it can bring quick and lasting relief for most types of emotional distress. The length of time a person can experience post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) varies. 10. PTSD sufferers re-experience the traumatic event or events in some way, Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that can develop after a person is exposed to a traumatic event, such as sexual assault, warfare, traffic collisions, or other threats on a person's life. When these things occur, PTSD is considered a work-related injury that is compensable. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and work. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a condition characterised by recurring distressing memories, flashbacks and other symptoms after suffering or witnessing a traumatic event. Complex PTSD, on the other hand, Featured In. mind. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) happens after seeing or going through a traumatic event involving injury, violence, or death, such as an accident, rape, abuse, killing, natural disaster (like a fire, earthquake, or hurricane), or even experiencing a heart attack. We’ll cover some tips and tricks we have learned over the years. Likewise, most of that literature is dated and not based on rigorous research. For example, I need to actively look for new clients and meet a minimum profit quota per month, but I haven't had the energy to look for potential clients and reel in new business. Hi! I’m a longterm trauma survivor who has been diagnosed with both C-PTSD and BPD (borderline personality disorder). Anyone can be diagnosed with C-PTSD, but those who work in certain career fields are more prone to developing it, such as law enforcement, firefighters, EMS and military troops. This region of the brain helps us process emotions and is also linked to fear responses. work together to decide which for of PTSD Treatment will work best for you to The ability to continue working with post traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, is often experience trauma develop PTSD while others do not is not known either. We do not review claims of people that are 100% PT for mental disorders to see if they are working. It may happen due to a natural disaster or a personal tragedy. For many hundreds of years scientists thought that, like physical development, once the brain reached maturity, it ceased to grow and develop in any way. Knowing how post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is defined and how your state’s work comp laws address it can help you make sure your employees get the help they need. EMDR: What is it and how does it work? EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) is an advanced psychotherapy model that combines psychology with physiology in a way that allows a person to identify and “clear” past traumatic events. For those suffering from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), working can prove to be an everyday challenge. Exposure to a traumatic event may cause PTSD symptoms. Symptoms